1.3 Open Source Software and Licensing
Open communities and licensing Open Source Software for business
Open Source Licensing
Open Source Philosophy
- Philosophy that users have the right to obtain the software source code and modify it for their own use.
- Software projects use source code; a human-readable set of computer instructions.
- Unix source code language preceded Linux. Unix was created at AT&T Bell Labs in 1969.
- Standards organizations like IEEE and POSIX ensure that code has the ability to be compatible with other programs and operating systems for collaboration.
- GNU Project built tools that are compatible with UNIX, which were used to create Linux and now make Linux a more complete package.
Open Source Licensing
- Purchasing Software:
- Ownership – Who owns the intellectual property
- Money Transfer – Does it cost anything? How do you pay?
- Licensing – What do you get? What can you do with the software? How many computers? Can you share it?
- End User License Agreement (EULA) is a legal document you must accept before installing software.
- GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) is a license that states the source code must be made available to anyone and that anyone can make changes. *Changes must be under the same license.
- Free and Open Source Software is software where anyone can view source code, modify it, and redistribute it.
The Free Software Foundation
“Two groups can be considered the most influential forces in the world of open source: The Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative.”
- Founded in 1985 with goal of promoting free software. Advocates for freedom to share, study, and modify the underlying source code.
- Enforces copyleft, the philosophy that if someone modifies free software, they are required to share those changes when they share the modified software.
- Developed their own licenses which are free and are based on GNU General Public License (GPL). **Also GPLv2, GPLv3, LGPLv2, and LGPLv3
The Open Source Initiative
- Licenses without copyleft are called permissive.
- Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) is an term used to refer to the open source community, which consists of Free Software and Open Source as a collective (a catch-all term).
- Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) uses the term libre to define the difference between free from restrictions (Libre) and free from cost (Free).
- Attribution – Must acknowledge the author
- ShareAlike – Copyleft
- No-Derivs – You may not change the content
- NonCommercial – No commercial use
- Combinations are allowed, such as Attribution-No-Derivs-NonCommercial
Open Source Business Models
If the software is free, how can a company monetize it?
- Offer products and services; Red Hat and Ubuntu
- Create tools; Wireshark
- Package hardware and open source software; Tivo, appliances
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